Wednesday, March 19, 2014

Case of pelvic Right kidney

This 40 year old male patient has a surprise in his abdomen. The right kidney is located in the right side of the pelvis, which is a variation from the normal. The normal position of the kidneys is the lumbar region. The right kidney should be seen in right renal fossa close to the liver. This variant is called pelvic kidney with this organ located just to the right of the urinary bladder.

Wednesday, January 08, 2014

Normal lower limb venous doppler study- using convex probe

very often while performing venous Doppler study, imaging conditions are poor due to oedema of the lower limbs with the result that it is nearly impossible to visualise adequately the veins using a high frequency linear ultrasound  probe. In these conditions, the use of our convex probe of lower frequency like the one we used for the lower limb venous Doppler study, is the only practical alternative. And indeed, the results are quiet good, even impressive with a 3.5 MHz probe. Of course, when needed, one must change the PRF settings as the situation demands.
This was a normal venous Doppler study of the right lower limb and performed entirely using the convex ultrasound probe.
1. the right femoral and great saphenous veins:
normal Valsalva manoeuvre

2. The right femoral vein- normal augmentation on calf pressure:
3. Normal compressibility of the right popliteal vein:

4. Normal, anterior tibial vein and artery:
5.The normal paired posterior tibial veins and posterior tibial artery:
for more on this topic, visit:

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

the left femoral vein- colour Doppler study

this elderly male patient had redness and mild swelling of the skin over the middle third of the left leg.
This is what we found when we did the colour Doppler study of the left lower limb.
This patient did not have any major pain or tenderness in the thigh.Clinically, he did not have features of deep vein thrombosis. Would you think of this possibility from these Doppler ultrasound images?


The answer: this is a case of Left femoral vein thrombosis. There is near total absence of flow signal in a major part of the left femoral vein. The lack of symptoms is explained by the patient having had anticoagulant treatment for a few days.

Friday, May 24, 2013

Unusually large right atrium-19weeks fetal heart

What is your take on these images of the fetal heart. I have also added a long ultrasound and color flow video of the same fetus below:
   3 vessel view ultrasound image:

 4 chamber view fetal echo images:

Monday, April 22, 2013

Is this a nodular subcortical heterotopia- neonatal brain ultrasound

This neonate shows a large (3.5 cms.) sized lesion in the Rt. cerebral hemisphere. What do these neonatal brain ultrasound images portray? Is it a case of neonatal nodular subcortical heterotopia or is it an ICSOL due to intracerebral bleed or some form of glioma?
the answer: this is a large  intracerebral  haematoma occupying the right parietal and occipital regions of the  neonate's  brain. This was the diagnosis based on the MRI scan.

See this link: Radiology (AJNR) article on disorders of cortical formation

Wednesday, April 17, 2013

Multiple fetal anomalies- in 3rd trimester

This 35 week fetus has multiple anomalies.
Short femur, 2 vessel cord, prominent fetal labia....
and also a potential cardiac anomaly.
Fetal abdomen and AC:

Fetal head and BPD:
2 vessel cord- single umbilical artery:

Fetal labia:

Fetal femur and FL:
Fetal heart- 3 vessel view:

Video of fetal echo: is there a mild hypoplasia of the fetal left heart?

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